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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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Chinese shares close higher Monday******

BEIJING, Oct. 25 (Xinhua) -- Chinese stocks closed higher on Monday, with the benchmark Shanghai Composite Index up 0.76 percent, at 3,609.86 points.

The Shenzhen Component Index closed 0.72 percent higher at 14,596.72 points.

The combined turnover of stocks covered by the two indices stood at 1.01 trillion yuan (about 158.8 billion U.S. dollars), down from 1.02 trillion yuan on the previous trading day.

Stocks related to energy storage and electricity led the gains, while the real estate and education sectors suffered losses.

The ChiNext Index, tracking China's NASDAQ-style board of growth enterprises, gained 1.64 percent to close at 3,338.62 points. Enditem

Tiberias Marathon attracts 7,000 runners******

JERUSALEM, Dec. 10 (Xinhua) -- About 7,000 athletes from 15 countries and regions on Friday participated in the 44th Tiberias Marathon along the shores of the Sea of Galilee in northeastern Israel.。

Due to coronavirus limitations on the entry of foreign nationals to Israel, leading runners from abroad did not compete, and the foreign athletes who participated were those who live in Israel.。

The winner of the men's race was Israel's Daniel Mulushet, who timed two hours, 17 minutes and eight seconds, while his compatriot Beatie Deutsch won the women's marathon by 2:41:12.。

The two winners received a prize of 3,750 U.S. dollars each.。

Israel's Olympician Marhu Teferi won the men's half-marathon with a result of 1:02:17, while the first to finish in the women's half-marathon race was Lonah Chemtai Salpeter with a result of 1:11:35.。

The event also included 10km and 5km runs. Enditem。

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物种迅速进化很有可能没啥用,反倒促使他们更早灭绝******

大家一般觉得,在生物多元性的进化全过程中,很多大的进化支系是根据更快的进化发生的,他们有着更好的生物多元性;而较小的支系则经历了更迟缓的进化,他们的生物多元性更低。殊不知一项新的研究发现:进化得越来越快,绝种得也越来越快。

Rapidly evolving species more likely to go extinct, study suggests。

Researchers at the University of Bristol have found that fast evolution can lead to nowhere.。

美国布里斯托高校的科学研究工作人员最新发现,物种迅速进化很有可能促进他们更早绝种。

In a new study of lizards and their relatives, Dr Jorge Herrera-Flores of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences and colleagues have discovered that 'slow and steady wins the race'.。

布里斯托高校地球上研究院的Jorge Herrera-Flores博士以及朋友,在一项对于蛇蜥以及血亲物种的分析中发觉,“迟缓而平稳”的进化方式,使他们获得了地球上物种“进化比赛”。

The team studied lizards, snakes and their relatives, a group called the Lepidosauria. Today there are more than 10,000 species of lepidosaurs, and much of their recent success is a result of fast evolution in favourable circumstances. But this was not always the case.。

该学习工作组的研究对象是有鳞亚纲物种,包含:蛇蜥,蛇和别的血亲物种。现如今地球上有鳞亚纲物种总数做到1万多种,大家觉得该类群的取得成功进化非常大水平上是在有益地理环境下迅速进化产生的,但状况并不是一直这般。

Mr Herrera-Flores explained: "Lepidosaurs originated 250 million years ago in the early Mesozoic Era, and they split into two major groups, the squamates on the one hand, leading to modern lizards and snakes, and the rhynchocephalians on the other, represented today by a single species, the tuatara of New Zealand. We expected to find slow evolution in rhynchocephalians, and fast evolution in squamates. But we found the opposite."。

Herrera-Flores博士表述说:“有鳞亚纲物种始于2.5亿光年前三叠纪初期,他们分成两大支系,一支是有鳞类生物,慢慢演化进化成当代蛇蜥和蛇,另一支是喙头目生物,现如今仅存有单一物种——新加坡大蜥蜴。一般我们觉得喙头目生物是迟缓进化而致,有鳞类生物理应发生了迅速进化,但事实上,回答恰好反过来。”。

"We looked at the rate of change in body size among these early reptiles," said Dr Tom Stubbs, a collaborator. "We found that some groups of squamates evolved fast in the Mesozoic, especially those with specialised lifestyles like the marine mosasaurs. But rhynchocephalians were much more consistently fast-evolving."。

此项科学研究的合作方Tom Stubbs 博士说:“在科学研究了这种初期脊椎动物的身型转变速率,发觉一些有鳞类生物在三叠纪阶段进化速率迅速,尤其是这些拥有独特生活习惯的非常巨怪,比如:日常生活在深海中的沧龙。但意想不到的是,喙头目生物持续保持迅速的进化速率。”。

图中是侏罗纪晚期的蛇颈龙,它们生活在大约1.5亿年前,骨骼化石挖掘于德国南部,它是一种非凡的长体游泳喙头目生物。  图上是侏罗纪时代末期的蛇颈龙,他们生话在大概1.5亿光年前,人体骨骼动物化石发掘于法国南边,它是一种不凡的长体游水喙头目生物。

"In fact, their average rates of evolution were significantly faster than those for squamates, about twice the background rate of evolution, and we really did not expect this," said Dr Armin Elsler, another collaborator. "In the later part of the Mesozoic all the modern groups of lizards and snakes originated and began to diversify, living side-by-side with the dinosaurs, but probably not engaging with them ecologically. These early lizards were feeding on bugs, worms, and plants, but they were mainly quite small."。

“实际上,喙头目生物的均值进化速率明显超出有鳞类生物,大概是后面一种进化速率的二倍,这也是先前沒有想到的。”该科学研究的另一位合作方Armin Elsler博士说,“在三叠纪中后期,全部当代蛇蜥和蛇种都出現了,并逐渐房屋朝向多元化发展趋势,他们与霸王龙物种日常生活在一起,但很有可能在绿色生态上不容易与霸王龙产生触碰。这种远古蜥蜴以小虫子,蜘蛛和绿色植物为食,他们的身型都并不大。”。

Prof Mike Benton added: "'After the extinction of the dinosaurs, 66 million years ago, at the end of the Mesozoic, the rhynchocephalians and squamates suffered a lot, but the squamates bounced back. But for most of the Mesozoic, the rhynchocephalians were the innovators and the fast evolvers. They tailed off quite severely well before the end of the Mesozoic, and the whole dynamic changed after that."。

Mike Benton 专家教授填补道:“6600百万年三叠纪后期,恐龙的灭绝以后喙头目生物和有鳞类生物遭到了非常大严厉打击,但有鳞类生物物种迅速反跳。但就三叠纪大部分物种来讲,喙头目生物是进化颠覆性创新,处在较迅速进化情况,但在三叠纪后期该种群数量就快速走入没落,在哪以后,全部动态性就发生了转变。”。

This work confirms a challenging proposal made by the famous palaeontologist George Gaylord Simpson in his 1944 book Tempo and Mode in Evolution. He looked at the fundamental patterns of evolution in a framework of Darwinian evolution and observed that many fast-evolving species belonged to unstable groups, which were potentially adapting to rapidly changing environments.。

此项全新科学研究证明了知名的古生物学者乔冶·盖洛德·辛普森在1944年出版发行的《进化的节奏感和方式》一书里明确提出的趣味性提议。他在爱因斯坦进化论的理论框架下科学研究了物种进化的基本原则,并了解到很多迅速进化的物种归属于不稳定人群,他们能够融入迅速改变的地理环境。

蜥蜴和蛇的进化速度(蓝线)在大约2亿年的时间里远低于喙头目生物(绿线),而且它们只是在最近5000万年左右才发生了逆转。  蛇蜥和蛇的进化速率(绿线)在大概2年前的時间里远小于喙头目生物(蓝线),并且他们仅仅在近期5000萬年上下才发生了反转。

Prof Benton continued: "Slow and steady wins the race. In the classic Aesop's fable, the speedy hare loses the race, whereas the slow-moving tortoise crosses the finishing line first. Since the days of Darwin, biologists have debated whether evolution is more like the hare or the tortoise. Is it the case that big groups of many species are the result of fast evolution over a short time or slow evolution over a long time?

Benton专家教授再次讲到:“脚踏实地才可以赢得比赛。在传统的寓言故事中,跑的快的小兔子最后却输掉赛事,而跑得慢的小乌龟第一个冲过去了终点。从爱因斯坦时期逐渐,生物学者们就一直在争执最好物种进化更像小兔子或是小乌龟。有着多物种支系的物种是短期内内迅速进化的結果,或是长期迟缓进化的結果?”。

"In some cases, they can stabilise and survive well, but in many cases the species go extinct as fast as new ones emerge, and they can go extinct, just like the napping hare. On the other hand, Simpson predicted that slowly evolving species might also be slow to go extinct, and could in the end be successful in the longer term, just like the slow-moving but persistent tortoise in the fable."。

“在某种状况下,很多物种能平稳地进化发展趋势,非常好地存活出来。但在大部分状况下,物种绝种速率和新物种创造速率基本上是一样快,如同小兔子打盹的時间那麼“短暂性”。辛普森曾推测称,进化迟缓的物种很有可能也会迟缓地迈向绝种,并可以在很长一段时间内比迅速进化的物种更加取得成功,如同寓意故事中迟缓挪动但锲而不舍的小乌龟一样。”。

Chelsea in 7th heaven as Man City lay down law in Brighton******

LONDON, Oct. 23 (Xinhua) -- Mason Mount scored a hat-trick to help Chelsea continue at top of the Premier League this weekend with a 7-0 thrashing of bottom of the table Norwich.

Norwich travelled to Stamford Bridge after consecutive 0-0 draws, but hopes of a third clean sheet vanished as soon as the eighth minute when Mount opened the scoring, and Hudson Odoi doubled the lead 10 minutes later.

The game was over as a contest when Reese James made it 3-0 before halftime and Ben Chilwell and an Aarons' own goal made it 5-0 before Mount rounded off his hat-trick with two goals in the last five minutes.

Manchester City were quickly into gear as they won 4-1 away to Brighton, who had kicked off the weekend in fourth place in the table.

The game was just about over after half an hour after Ilkay Gundogan opened the scoring for Pep Guardiola's side in the 13th minute, before Phil Foden added a brace in the 28th and 31st minutes.

Alexis Mac Allister scored a penalty for Brighton with nine minutes left to play, but the result was never in doubt and Riyad Mahrez highlighted City's superiority with their 4th goal deep into injury time.

Former Everton striker Josh King scored a hat-trick as Watford twice came back from behind to claim an astonishing 5-2 win at Goodison Park to give Claudio Ranieri his first win as Watford coach.

Tom Davis put Everton ahead only for King to cancel out his goal 10 minutes later, but it looked as if Richarlison's 63rd minute strike would win it for Everton, before Watford blitzed home four goals in the last 12 minutes. Juraj Kucka equalized before two goals from King turned the game around and Emmanuel Bonaventura added a fifth in injury time.

Rodrigo Moreno's last-minute penalty saved a point for injury hit Leeds United who had fallen behind to Hwang Hee-Chan's first half strike, but did enough to deserve a point.

Callum Wilson poached a goal to give Newcastle United a point they scarcely deserved on their visit to Crystal Palace, who dominated the ball and had most of the chances and looked to be on their way to three points after Christian Benteke's 56th minute owner.

However, Wilson salvaged a point for Newcastle in their first game under Graeme Jones following Stave Bruce's midweek sacking.

Maxwell Cornet showed his value to Burnley by scoring twice in their 2-2 draw away to Southampton, who hit the target through Tino Livramento and Armando Borja.

On Friday night Arsenal claimed an important 3-1 home win against Aston Villa thanks to goals from Thomas Partey, Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang, who followed home after his initial penalty had been saved, and Emile Smith-Rowe put Arsenal 3-0 up before Jacob Ramsey netted a late consolation for Villa, who have lost their last three games. Enditem

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